What is meant by ‘input’ and ‘output’ in Second Language Acquisition?

Children’s acquisition of phonemes shows some similarities across languages among other things.1 For example /ð/ and /ɹ/ are late acquired in some languages and are considered ‘typologically marked’ (Mcleod & Crowe, 2018; Ohala, 2008). That universals are at play has also been taken up by in L2 phonological acquisition for example by Eckman in his Markedness Differential Hypothesis. Atlantis Press – now part of Springer Nature – is a professional publisher of scientific, technical & medical proceedings, journals and books. We offer world-class services, fast turnaround times and personalised communication. The proceedings and journals on our platform are Open Access and generate millions of downloads every month. We can note two more important points that contribute to the success of this exchange.

It is more than enough for the internalization of the target language. The condition that Krashen attaches to his Input Hypothesis is that the input should be pitched a little above the learner’s present state of competence. Effective language teaching can provide children with the satisfaction of succeeding in the challenge of learning a foreign language. All these issues must be taken under consideration when researching children and their teachers. Production training is under-investigated in L2 training studies, and despite the small number of studies with adults, there are very few studies of children.

language output

10TYeah, we’ll just go with The teacher accepts the word ‘sensei’.11SStudent Services de senseiTeacher at Student ServicesThe student uses the whole phrase in Japanese.12TIn that case it’s ‘Student Services no sensei wa dare desu ka? ’The teacher now models in Japanese the original question.13SStudent Services no sensei wa dare desu ka? You can’t think your way through pronunciation (believe me, most introverts have tried and failed!). However, Krashen does point out that need can be helpful when it places the acquirer in a position in which he or she can receive comprehensible input . At the same time, there are problems with an output-only learning process.

What is input?

The problems being faced fall on the difference between acquisition and learning. Acquisition entails mastering the details keenly and therefore it is slow and subtle. Language acquisitions seem to be conservative since it attempts to consistently reference any empirical data or theories that may exist. You don’t need to coordinate with others or hire an English tutor to do them. And you can squeeze them in while you’re doing other things like running or making dinner. That often makes them much more convenient than speaking activities.

  • This difference (along with the fact we already have fully developed brains and don’t have to wear diapers) gives adults a major leg up on babies learning their first language.
  • In my experience, it appears that an increased emphasis is usually placed on “output” language rather than “input” language.
  • This input will be internalized and will become part of the learners’ knowledge only if it is noticed, attended to, processed and used in authentic situations.
  • Interaction is also a minor but important aspect that has been outlaid.

With regards to this research finding, teachers can encourage more discussion through the newly acquired language and also increase more activities about the use of the language to generate more accurate outcomes on the learning process. This study supports the hypothesis of dialogue is the key to the acquisition of a second language. The input that the students should be exposed to has to be comprehensible and should provide enough information to help them construct, consciously or unconsciously, their knowledge about the system. According to Krashen, comprehensible input is a prerequisite to language acquisition.

Swain hypothesized that learners in immersion settings were not “pushed” to a deeper analysis of the target language grammar because they could get their meaning across adequately without doing so. I read in another post that you believe students should wait until they are ready to begin communicating. This is the opposite of Benny’s (fluentin3months.com) cheerful advice to just “get out there and do it”. I find Benny’s advice encouraging and exactly the attitude learners should have. I told a friend about people who come to my Chinese, French or Spanish Meetups that don’t actually know how to speak the languages and it’s always very awkward and stifles regular conversation between members. It’s rare, but one member of my Mandarin group was almost a total beginner when he started coming.

Input vs. Output: John’s 2¢ on the Debate

Integration is not function as an independent unit because it is dynamic and interactive with knowledge itself for being cumulative and interactive. Intake is the mental activity that mediates between input and grammars; however, intake is not only a subset of input. By using this service, you agree that you will only keep content for personal use, and will not openly distribute them via Dropbox, Google Drive or other file sharing servicesPlease confirm that you accept the terms of use. As they asked these questions and listened to Margaret’s answers the students made notes. What James actually did was to make students responsible for making up their own stories, requiring them to work independently but being available for help if they wanted it.

language output

Here they may try out new language they are not sure of, working at the ‘cutting edge’, so to speak, of their language ability. When they do this they may, at the same time, get valuable feedback about how successful their attempt to communicate was and this feedback may facilitate learning. Swain realised that a key characteristic of these immersion classrooms was that the students had not had many opportunities to produce the second language. This led Swain and other researchers to rethink the role that language output might contribute to language learning (Reference Gass and Selinker Gass & Selinker, 2001).

From the input hypothesis which is the significant theory to explain the relationship between input and output, Krashen who mentioned the right kind of input, claimed to explain that language learners are able to understand the massages just one step What is Computer Programming beyond their knowledge. If language learners are unable to understand massages, they also are unable to produce their sentences to keep the conversation. This explanation seems to be good for language learners who act as listeners and readers.

Development of argument

Another argument for Merrill Swain’s Output hypothesis is that, as Scott Thornbury suggests, when the learners are pushed to produce language in real time, they are ‘forced to automate low-level operations by incorporating them into higher-level routines’. This may contribute to the development of fluency and automaticity. When this happens, an ELL student is being surrounded by language above their academic abilities and thus are not really grasping curriculum content. This in turn affects their spoken and written assignments, and for good reason, as they are unable to demonstrate a solid understanding of concepts being taught in the classroom because they missed vital pieces of information. In this paper, the authors explain how output is connected to input and interaction and how through these processes, language learners have opportunities to notice differences between their own formulations of the target language and the language of their conversational partners. It discusses how learners can be pushed to modify their output during conversation.

language output

Others have suggested that “adults talk too much”, instead recommending that you should only start speaking after you’re ready for things to come out naturally. It might also be helpful to teach your students a range of strategies they can use to increase the amount and quality of their input and output. Teachers need to take note of how much time they spend talking WordPress Developer Resources Official WordPress Developer Resources in class. If you feel that you are talking more than your students, then you probably need to talk less. Give you students ample opportunity to speak – and monitor their progress so you can give prompts, recasts, or explicit feedback at the appropriate times. Or to put it another way – in most cases input becomes output only once the student has attended to it.

Discuss the relationship between input and output in Second Language Acquisition

Even fewer attempts have been made to compare classroom instruction with computer-assisted training. The results show that output practice has an advantage over delayed production after only three weeks of training particularly in less marked sounds. Findings also show that learning English before the age of puberty does not warrant accent-free pronunciation. The important point to make about this lesson sequence is that Margaret planned very carefully a series of steps which scaffolded the students to be able to write a short paragraph. This paragraph was, in actual fact, preparation for the bigger writing task which they would continue to work towards during other lessons.

The input refers to the processible language the learners are exposed to while listening or reading (i.e. The receptive skills). The output, on the other hand, is the language they produce, either in speaking or writing (i.e. The productive skills). Output is arguably just as important as input for language development.

Sociocultural theorists argue that, when learners receive scaffolded help to produce language, as in this example, they will become able to use this language with less assistance, and ultimately, be able to use it independently (see Figure 4.2). However, whether one views second language learning from a sociocultural perspective, or from a cognitive perspective, one believes that this type of interaction is facilitative of language learning. Common to both 10 Top Cloud Security Companies theoretical traditions is the idea that learning is facilitated as a learner interacts with a more proficient speaker and receives support. Some other helpful examples of how learners may be supported to produce output come from Reference Nation Nation’s discussion of how to create opportunities for meaning-focused output. Moreover, in their “jigsaw” study, Swain and Lapkin found encouraging results of some negotiated forms concerning post test scores.

To improve on the Interlingua development, learners need to use the pushed output since it encourages the building of meta-linguistic consciousness. During this process of communication, speakers need to understand clearly what is required of them during the learning process. More attention ought to be focused on the form of communication in use. They must also understand the gap between what they need to learn and the interactive method of utilizing knowledge in communication.

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